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Clinical White Papers

Get to know a gene: CES1A1

Summary: CES1A1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolism of methylphenidate (MPH).1 The Gly143Glu polymorphism reduces enzyme activity, which could result in elevated plasma concentrations of some parent compounds…
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The GeneSight® Psychotropic Combinatorial Algorithm

The Pharmacogenomic (PGx) Algorithm: A common discussion among experts revolves around pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing algorithms. Many commercial tests are proprietary, and therefore, their algorithms are considered a “black box”.1 This…
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GET TO KNOW A GENE: HLA-B*1502 and HLA-A*3101

Summary: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex plays an important role in immune regulation. HLA-B*1502 has demonstrated the ability to predict an increased risk of severe skin reactions, such as Stevens-Johnsons…
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Get to know a gene: CACNA1C

Summary: Minimal evidence exists linking CACNA1C as a pharmacogenomic marker, and CACNA1C shows little clinical utility as a disease marker. While there is an association between CACNA1C and bipolar disorder…
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How Do I Use the Gene-Drug Interaction Chart?

What is the gene-drug interaction chart? Healthcare providers and patients often inquire about how they can determine which genes may affect outcomes with each medication. The gene-drug interaction chart provides…
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Get to know a gene: ANK3

Summary: ANK3 has not been shown to inform on patient medication response and therefore is not a pharmacogenomic marker. As a disease marker, it lacks clinical utility. There is an…
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Get to know a gene: COMT

Summary: The Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) in the COMT gene can affect baseline levels of synaptic catecholamines. Several studies have assessed the impact of this polymorphism on treatment outcomes with psychotropic…
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