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Medications: Emsam® – selegiline

MEDICATIONS

Emsam® – selegiline (View the FDA label)

Initial Treatment

EMSAM should be applied to dry, intact skin on the upper torso (below the neck and above the waist), upper thigh or the outer surface of the upper arm once every 24 hours. The recommended starting dose and target dose for EMSAM is 6 mg/24 hours. EMSAM has been systematically evaluated and shown to be effective in a dose range of 6 mg/24 hours to 12 mg/24 hours. However, the trials were not designed to assess if higher doses are more effective than the lowest effective dose of 6 mg/24 hours. Based on clinical judgment, if dose increases are indicated for individual patients, they should occur in dose increments of 3 mg/24 hours (up to a maximum dose of 12 mg/24 hours) at intervals of no less than 2 weeks. As with all antidepressant drugs, full antidepressant effect may be delayed.

Patients should be informed that tyramine-rich foods and beverages should be avoided beginning on the first day of EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours or 12 mg/24 hours treatment and should continue to be avoided for 2 weeks after a dose reduction to EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours or following the discontinuation of EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours or 12 mg/24 hours (see WARNINGS).

Special Populations

EMSAM at any dos e should not be us ed in children under the age of 12 years even when administered with dietary modifications. EMSAM is not approved for us e in pediatric patients.

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild to moderate renal or hepatic impairment. The recommended dose for elderly patients (≥ 65 years) is EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours daily. Dose increases, in the elderly, should be made with caution and patients should be closely observed for postural changes in blood pressure throughout treatment.

to Use EMSAM

  1. EMSAM should be applied to dry, intact skin on the upper torso (below the neck and above the waist), upper thigh or the outer surface of the upper arm. A new application site should be selected with each new patch to avoid re-application to the same site on consecutive days. Patches should be applied at approximately the same time each day.
  2. Apply the patch to an area of skin that is not hairy, oily, irritated, broken, scarred or calloused. Do not place the patch where your clothing is tight, which could cause the patch to rub off.
  3. After you have selected the site for your patch, wash the area gently and thoroughly with soap and warm water. Rinse until all soap is removed. Dry the area with a clean dry towel.
  4. Just before you apply the patch, remove it from the pouch. Remove half of the protective backing and throw it away. Try not to touch the exposed side (sticky side) of the patch, because the medicine could come off on your fingers.
  5. Press the sticky side of the patch firmly against the skin site that was just washed and dried. Remove the second half of the protective liner and press the remaining sticky side firmly against your skin. Make sure that the patch is flat against the skin (there should be no bumps or folds in the patch) and is sticking securely. Be sure the edges are stuck to the skin surface.
  6. After you have applied the patch, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water to remove any medicine that may have gotten on them. Do not touch your eyes until after you have washed your hands.
  7. After 24 hours, remove the patch. Do not touch the sticky side. As soon as you have removed the patch, fold it so that the sticky side sticks to itself.
  8. Throw away the folded patch so that children and/or pets cannot reach it.
  9. Wash your hands with soap and water.
  10. If your patch falls off, apply a new patch to a new site and resume your previous schedule.
  11. Only one EMSAM patch should be worn at a time.
  12. Avoid exposing the EMSAM application site to external sources of direct heat, such as heating pads or electric blankets, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, heated water beds, and prolonged direct sunlight.

Maintenance Treatment

It is generally agreed that episodes of depression require several months or longer of sustained pharmacologic therapy. The benefit of maintaining depressed patients on therapy with EMSAM at a dose of 6 mg/24 hours after achieving a responder status for an average duration of about 25 days was demonstrated in a controlled trial (see Clinical Efficacy Trials and INDICATIONS AND USAGE). The physician who elects to use EMSAM for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

Adverse Findings Observed in Short-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials

Adverse Events Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

Among 817 depressed patients who received EMSAM at doses of either 3 mg/24 hours (151 patients), 6 mg/24 hours (550 patients) or 6 mg/24 hours, 9 mg/24 hours, and 12 mg/24 hours (116 patients) in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 weeks in duration, 7.1% discontinued treatment due to an adverse event as compared with 3.6% of 668 patients receiving placebo. The only adverse event associated with discontinuation, in at least 1% of EMSAM-treated patients at a rate at least twice that of placebo, was application site reaction (2% EMSAM vs. 0% placebo).

Adverse Events Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among EMSAM-Treated Patients

Table 2 enumerates adverse events that occurred at an incidence of 2% or more (rounded to the nearest percent) among 817 depressed patients who received EMSAM in doses ranging from 3 to 12 mg/24 hours in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 weeks in duration. Events included are those occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with EMSAM and for which the incidence in patients treated with EMSAM was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.

Only one adverse event was associated with a reporting of at least 5% in the EMSAM group, and a rate at least twice that in the placebo group, in the pool of short-term, placebo-controlled studies: application site reactions (see Application Site Reactions, below). In one such study which utilized higher mean doses of EMSAM than that in the entire study pool, the following events met these criteria: application site reactions, insomnia, diarrhea, and pharyngitis.

These figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physicians with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidence rate in the population studied.

Table 2. Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events:Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials for Major Depressive Disorder With EMSAM*

Body System/Preferred Term EMSAM
(N = 817)
Placebo (N = 668)
(% of Patients Reporting Event)
Body as a Whole
Headache 18 17
Digestive
Diarrhea 9 7
Dyspepsia 4 3
Nervous
Insomnia 12 7
Dry Mouth 8 6
Respiratory
Pharyngitis 3 2
Sinusitis 3 1
Skin
Application Site Reaction 24 12
Rash 4 2

*Events reported by at least 2% of patients treated with EMSAM are included, except the following events, which had an incidence on placebo treatment ≥ EMSAM: infection, nausea, dizziness, pain, abdominal pain, nervousness, back pain, asthenia, anxiety, flu syndrome, accidental injury, somnolence, rhinitis, and palpitations.

Application Site Reactions

In the pool of short-term, placebo-controlled major depressive disorder studies, application site reactions (ASRs) were reported in 24% of EMSAM-treated patients and 12% of placebo-treated patients. Most ASRs were mild or moderate in severity. None were considered serious. ASRs led to dropout in 2% of EMSAM-treated patients and no placebo-treated patients.

In one such study which utilized higher mean doses of EMSAM, ASRs were reported in 40% of EMSAM-treated patients and 20% of placebo-treated patients. Most of the ASRs in this study were described as erythema and most resolved spontaneously, requiring no treatment. When treatment was administered, it most commonly consisted of dermatological preparations of corticosteroids.

Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction with MAO Inhibitors

Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment.

Reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, in part because patients and physicians may be reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance cited in product labeling are likely to underestimate their actual incidence. Table 3 shows that the incidence rates of sexual side effects in patients with major depressive disorder are comparable to the placebo rates in placebo-controlled trials.

Table 3. Incidence of Sexual Side Effects in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials With EMSAM

(N = 513)(N = 412)

Adverse Event EMSAM Placebo
IN MALES ONLY
(N = 304) (N = 256)
Abnormal Ejaculation 1.0% 0.0%
Decreased Libido 0.7% 0.0%
Impotence 0.7% 0.4%
Anorgasmia 0.2% 0.0%
IN FEMALES ONLY
(N = 513) (N = 412)
Decreased Libido 0.0% 0.2%

There are no adequately designed studies examining sexual dysfunction with EMSAM treatment.

Vital Sign Changes

EMSAM and placebo groups were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in vital signs (pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure), and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. In the pool of short-term, placebo-controlled major depressive disorder studies, 3.0% of EMSAM-treated patients and 1.5% of placebo-treated patients experienced a low systolic blood pressure, defined as a reading less than or equal to 90 mmHg with a change from baseline of at least 20 mmHg. In one study which utilized higher mean doses of EMSAM, 6.2% of EMSAM-treated patients and no placebotreated patients experienced a low standing systolic blood pressure by these criteria. In the pool of short-term major depressive disorder trials, 9.8% of EMSAM-treated patients and 6.7% of placebo-treated patients experienced a notable orthostatic change in blood pressure, defined as a decrease of at least 10 mmHg in mean blood pressure with postural change.

Weight Changes

In placebo-controlled studies (6 – 8 weeks), the incidence of patients who experienced ≥ 5% weight gain or weight loss is shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Incidence of Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Placebo-Controlled Trials With EMSAM

Weight Change EMSAM Placebo
(N = 757) (N = 614)
Gained ≥ 5% 2.1% 2.4%
Lost ≥ 5% 5.0% 2.8%

In these trials, the mean change in body weight among EMSAM-treated patients was -1.2 lbs compared to + 0.3 lbs in placebo-treated patients.

Laboratory Changes

EMSAM and placebo groups were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in various serum chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis variables, and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. These analyses revealed no clinically important changes in laboratory test parameters associated with EMSAM.

ECG Changes

Electrocardiograms (ECGs) from EMSAM (N = 817) and placebo (N = 668) groups in controlled studies were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in various ECG parameters, and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables.

No clinically meaningful changes in ECG parameters from baseline to final visit were observed for patients in controlled studies.

Other Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of EMSAM

During the premarketing assessment in major depressive disorder, EMSAM was administered to 2036 patients in Phase III studies. The conditions and duration of exposure to EMSAM varied and included double-blind and open-label studies.

In the tabulations that follow, reported adverse events were classified using a standard COSTARTbased dictionary terminology. All reported adverse events are included except those already listed in Table 2 or elsewhere in labeling, and those events occurring in only one patient. It is important to emphasize that although the events occurred during treatment with EMSAM,they were not necessarily caused by it.

Events are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: frequent adverse events are those occurring on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events are those occurring in less than 1/100 patients but at least 1/1000 patients; rare events are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.

Body as a Whole: Frequent: Chest pain, neck pain. Infrequent: Bacterial infection, fever, cyst, fungal infection, chills, viral infection, suicide attempt, neck rigidity, pelvic pain, photosensitivity reaction, face edema, flank pain, hernia, intentional injury, neoplasm, generalized edema, overdose. Rare: Body odor, halitosis, heat stroke, parasitic infection, malaise, moniliasis.

Cardiovascular System: Frequent: Hypertension. Infrequent: Vasodilatation, tachycardia, migraine, syncope, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disorder. Rare: Myocardial infarct.

Digestive System: Frequent: Constipation, flatulence, anorexia, gastroenteritis, vomiting. Infrequent: Increased appetite, thirst, periodontal abscess, eructation, gastritis, colitis, dysphagia, tongue edema, glossitis, increased salivation, abnormal liver function tests, melena, tongue disorder, tooth caries. Rare: GI neoplasia, rectal hemorrhage.

Hemic and Lymphatic System: Frequent: Ecchymosis. Infrequent: Anemia, lymphadenopathy. Rare: Leukocytosis, leukopenia, petechia.

Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: Peripheral edema. Infrequent: Hyperglycemia, increased SGPT, edema, hypercholesteremia, increased SGOT, dehydration, alcohol intolerance, hyponatremia, increased lactic dehydrogenase. Rare: Increased alkaline phosphatase, bilirubinemia, hypoglycemic reaction.

Musculoskeletal System: Frequent: Myalgia, pathological fracture. Infrequent: Arthralgia, generalized spasm, arthritis, myasthenia, arthrosis, tenosynovitis. Rare: Osteoporosis.

Nervous System: Frequent: Agitation, paresthesia, thinking abnormal, amnesia. Infrequent: Leg cramps, tremor, vertigo, hypertonia, twitching, emotional lability, confusion, manic reaction, depersonalization, hyperkinesias, hostility, myoclonus, circumoral paresthesia, hyperesthesia, increased libido, euphoria, neurosis, paranoid reaction. Rare: Ataxia.

Respiratory System: Frequent: Cough increased, bronchitis. Infrequent: Dyspnea, asthma, pneumonia, laryngismus. Rare: Epistaxis, laryngitis, yawn.

Skin and Appendages: Frequent: Pruritus, sweating, acne. Infrequent: Dry skin, maculopapular rash, contact dermatitis, urticaria, herpes simplex, alopecia, vesiculobullous rash, herpes zoster, skin hypertrophy, fungal dermatitis, skin benign neoplasm. Rare: Eczema.

Special Senses: Frequent: Taste perversion, tinnitus. Infrequent: Dry eyes, conjunctivitis, ear pain, eye pain, otitis media, parosmia. Rare: Mydriasis, otitis external, visual field defect.

Urogenital System: Frequent: Urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia. Infrequent: Urinary tract infection (male), vaginitis, cystitis (female), hematuria (female), unintended pregnancy, dysuria (female), urinary urgency (male and female), vaginal moniliasis, menorrhagia, urination impaired (male), breast neoplasm (female), kidney calculus (female), vaginal hemorrhage, amenorrhea, breast pain, polyuria (female).

General

Hypotension
As with other MAOIs, postural hypotension, sometimes with orthostatic symptoms, can occur with EMSAM therapy. In short-term, placebo-controlled depression studies, the incidence of orthostatic hypotension (i.e., a decrease of 10 mmHg or greater in mean blood pressure when changing position from supine or sitting to standing) was 9.8% in EMSAM-treated patients and 6.7% in placebo-treated patients. It is recommended that elderly patients treated with EMSAM be closely observed for postural changes in blood pressure throughout treatment. Dose increases should be made cautiously in patients with pre-existing orthostasis. Postural hypotension may be relieved by having the patient recline until the symptoms have abated. Patients should be cautioned to change positions gradually. Patients displaying orthostatic symptoms should have appropriate dosage adjustments as warranted.

Activation of Mania/Hypomania
During Phase III trials, a manic reaction occurred in 8/2036 (0.4%) patients treated with EMSAM. Activation of mania/hypomania can occur in a small proportion of patients with major affective disorder treated with other marketed antidepressants. As with all antidepressants, EMSAM should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania.

Use in Patients With Concomitant Illness
Clinical experience with EMSAM in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. Caution is advised when using EMSAM in patients with disorders or conditions that can produce altered metabolism or hemodynamic responses.

EMSAM has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a history of recent myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Such patients were generally excluded from clinical studies during the product’s premarketing testing.

No ECG abnormalities attributable to EMSAM were observed in clinical trials.

Although studies of phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine did not reveal pharmacokinetic drug interactions with EMSAM, it is prudent to avoid the concomitant use of sympathomimetic agents, such as some decongestants.

Information for Patients
Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with EMSAM and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide about “Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and other Serious Mental Illness, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions” is available for EMSAM. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.

Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking EMSAM.

Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk
Patients, their families and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment or when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient’s prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly change in the medication.

General

Patients should be advised not to use oral selegiline while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised not to use carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised not to use meperidine and analgesic agents such as tramadol, methadone, and propoxyphene.

Patients should be advised not to use sympathomimetic agents while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised not to use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, and St. John’s wort), dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, e.g., venlafaxine and duloxetine), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, e.g., imipramine and amitriptyline), mirtazapine, oral selegiline or other MAOIs (e.g., isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine), bupropion hydrochloride or buspirone hydrochloride while on EMSAM therapy.

EMSAM (selegiline transdermal system) has not been shown to impair psychomotor performance; however, any psychoactive drug may potentially impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that EMSAM therapy does not impair their ability to engage in such activities.

Patients should be told that, although EMSAM has not been shown to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol, the concomitant use of EMSAM and alcohol in depressed patients is not recommended.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, including herbals, because of the potential for drug interactions. Patients should also be advised to avoid tyramine-containing nutritional supplements and any cough medicine containing dextromethorphan.

Patients should be advised to use EMSAM exactly as prescribed. The need for dietary modifications at higher doses should be explained, and a brief description of hypertensive crisis provided. Rare hypertensive reactions with oral selegiline at doses recommended for Parkinson’s disease and associated with dietary influences have been reported. The clinical relevance to EMSAM is unknown.

Patients should be advised that certain tyramine-rich foods and beverages should be avoided while on EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours or EMSAM 12 mg/24 hours, and for 2 weeks following discontinuation of EMSAM at these doses (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).

Patients should be instructed to immediately report the occurrence of the following acute symptoms: severe headache, neck stiffness, heart racing or palpitations, or other sudden or unusual symptoms.

Patients should be advised to avoid exposing the EMSAM application site to external sources of direct heat, such as heating pads or electric blankets, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, heated water beds, and prolonged direct sunlight since heat may result in an increase in the amount of selegiline absorbed from the EMSAM patch and produce elevated serum levels of selegiline.

Patients should be advised to change position gradually if lightheaded, faint, or dizzy while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they are breast-feeding an infant.

While patients may notice improvement with EMSAM therapy in 1 to several weeks, they should be advised of the importance of continuing drug treatment as directed.

Patients should be advised not to cut the EMSAM system into smaller portions.

For instructions on how to use EMSAM, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, How to Use EMSAM.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis
In an oral carcinogenicity study in rats, selegiline given in the diet for 104 weeks was not carcinogenic up to the highest evaluable dose tested (3.5 mg/kg/day, which is 3 times the oral maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis).

Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with transdermal administration of selegiline.

Mutagenesis
Selegiline induced mutations and chromosomal damage when tested in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay with and without metabolic activation. Selegiline was negative in the Ames assay, the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay in human lymphocytes, and the in vivo oral mouse micronucleus assay.

Impairment of Fertility
A mating and fertility study was conducted in male and female rats at transdermal doses of 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg/day of selegiline (8, 24, and 60 times the maximum recommended human dose of EMSAM [12 mg/24 hours] on a mg/m basis). Slight decreases in sperm concentration and total sperm count were observed at the high dose; however, no significant adverse effects on fertility or reproductive performance were observed.

Teratorgenic Effects – Pregnancy Category C
In an embryofetal development study in rats, dams were treated with transdermal selegiline during the period of organogenesis at doses of 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg/day (8, 24, and 60 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of EMSAM [12 mg/24 hours] on a mg/m basis). At the highest dose there was a decrease in fetal weight and slight increases in malformations, delayed ossification (also seen at the mid dose), and embryofetal post-implantation lethality. Concentrations of selegiline and its metabolites in fetal plasma were generally similar to those in maternal plasma. In an oral embryofetal development study in rats, a decrease in fetal weight occurred at the highest dose tested (36 mg/kg; noeffect dose 12 mg/kg); no increase in malformations was seen.

In an embryofetal development study in rabbits, dams were treated with transdermal selegiline during the period of organogenesis at doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 mg/kg/day (4, 16, and 64 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis). A slight increase in visceral malformations was seen at the high dose. In an oral embryofetal development study in rabbits, increases in total resorptions and post-implantation loss, and a decrease in the number of live fetuses per dam, occurred at the highest dose tested (50 mg/kg; no-effect dose 25 mg/kg).

In a prenatal and postnatal development study in rats, dams were treated with transdermal selegiline at doses of 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg/day (8, 24, and 60 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis) on days 6 – 21 of gestation and days 1 – 21 of the lactation period. An increase in post-implantation loss was seen at the mid and high doses, and an increase in stillborn pups was seen at the high dose. Decreases in pup weight (throughout lactation and post-weaning periods) and survival (throughout lactation period), retarded pup physical development, and pup epididymal and testicular hypoplasia, were seen at the mid and high doses. Retarded neurobehavioral and sexual development was seen at all doses. Adverse effects on pup reproductive performance, as evidenced by decreases in implantations and litter size, were seen at the high dose. These findings suggest persistent effects on the offspring of treated dams. A no-effect dose was not established for developmental toxicity. In this study, concentrations of selegiline and its metabolites in milk were ~ 15 and 5 times, respectively, the concentrations in plasma, indicating that the pups were directly dosed during the lactation period.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. EMSAM should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Labor and Delivery
The effect of EMSAM on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

Nursing Mothers
In a prenatal and postnatal study of transdermal selegiline in rats, selegiline and metabolites were excreted into the milk of lactating rats. The levels of selegiline and metabolites in milk were approximately 15 and 5 times, respectively, steady-state levels of selegiline and metabolites in maternal plasma. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised administering EMSAM to a nursing mother.

Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established (see BOX WARNINGand WARNINGS, Clinical Wors ening and Suicide Risk).

Anyone considering the use of EMSAM (selegiline transdermal system) in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.

Due to limited data, EMSAM at any dose should not be used in children under the age of 12 years even when administered with dietary modifications. EMSAM is not approved for use in pediatric patients.

Commercially available doses of EMSAM have not been studied in children under the age of 12 years. Limited pharmacokinetic data with lower doses than in the commercially available formulations suggest that children under the age of 12 years treated with EMSAM may be exposed to increased levels of selegiline compared to adolescents or adults. Therefore, the possibility exists for an increased risk of hypertensive crisis, even at the lowest dose of commercially available EMSAM, when administered without dietary modifications.

Geriatric Use
One hundred ninety-eight (198) elderly (≥ 65 years of age) patients participated in clinical studies with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours to 12 mg/24 hours. There were no overall differences in effectiveness between elderly and younger patients. In short-term, placebo-controlled depression trials, patients age 50 and older appeared to be at higher risk for rash (4.4% EMSAM vs. 0% placebo) than younger patients (3.4% EMSAM vs. 2.4% placebo).

Drug Interactions

The potential for drug interactions between EMSAM and a variety of drugs was examined in several human studies. Drug interaction studies described below were conducted with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours. Although no differences are expected, drug interaction studies have not been conducted at higher doses (see In vitro Metabolism). In all of the studies described below, no drug-related adverse events were noted that required discontinuation of any subjects. Further, the incidence and nature of the adverse events were consistent with those known for selegiline or the test agent.

Alcohol
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alcohol (0.75 mg/kg) alone or in combination with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days of treatment was examined in 16 healthy volunteers. No clinically significant differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of alcohol or the pharmacokinetics of selegiline during co-administration. Although EMSAM has not been shown to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol (0.75 mg/kg) and failed to alter the pharmacokinetic properties of alcohol, patients should be advised that the use of alcohol is not recommended while taking EMSAM.

Alprazolam
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days, co-administration with alprazolam (15 mg/day), a CYP3A4/5 substrate, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or alprazolam.

Carbamazepine
Carbamazepine is an enzyme inducer and typically causes decreases in drug exposure; however, slightly increased levels of selegiline and its metabolites were seen after single application of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours in subjects who had received carbamazepine (400 mg/day) for 14 days. Changes in plasma selegiline concentrations were nearly two-fold, and variable across the subject population. The clinical relevance of these observations is unknown. Carbamazepine is contraindicated with MAOIs, including selegiline (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Ibuprofen
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 11 days, combined administration with the CYP2C9 substrate ibuprofen (800 mg single dose) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or ibuprofen.

Ketoconazole
Seven-day treatment with ketoconazole (200 mg/day), a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, did not affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of selegiline in subjects who received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days and no differences in the pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole were observed.

Levothyroxine
In healthy subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, single dose administration with levothyroxine (150 μg) did not alter the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or levothyroxine (as judged by T and T plasma levels).

Olanzapine
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, co-administration with olanzapine, a substrate for CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and possibly CYP2A6, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or olanzapine.

Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 9 days, co-administration with PPA (25 mg every 4 hours for 24 hours) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of PPA. There was a higher incidence of significant blood pressure elevations with the co-administration of EMSAM and PPA than with PPA alone, suggesting a possible pharmacodynamic interaction. It is prudent to avoid the concomitant use of sympathomimetic agents with EMSAM.

Pseudoephedrine
EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, co-administered with pseudoephedrine (60 mg, 3 times a day) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of pseudoephedrine. The effect of pseudoephedrine on EMSAM was not examined. There were no clinically significant changes in blood pressure during pseudoephedrine administration alone, or in combination with EMSAM. Nonetheless, it is prudent to avoid the concomitant use of sympathomimetic agents with EMSAM.]

Risperidone
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, co-administration with risperidone (2 mg per day for 7 days), a substrate for CYP2D6, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or risperidone.

Tyramine
Selegiline (the drug substance of EMSAM) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), a ubiquitous intracellular enzyme. MAO exists as two isoenzymes, referred to as MAO-A and MAO-B. Selegiline shows greater affinity for MAO-B; however, as selegiline concentration increases, this selectivity is lost with resulting dose-related inhibition of MAO-A. Intestinal MAO is predominantly type A, while in the brain both isoenzymes exist.

MAO plays a vital physiological role in terminating the biological activity of both endogenous and exogenous amines. In addition to their role in the catabolism of monoamines in the CNS, MAOs are also important in the catabolism of exogenous amines found in a variety of foods and drugs. MAO in the gastrointestinal tract (primarily type A) provides protection from exogenous amines with vasopressor actions, such as tyramine, which if absorbed intact can cause a hypertensive crisis, the so-called “cheese reaction.” If a large amount of tyramine is absorbed systemically, it is taken up by adrenergic neurons and causes norepinephrine release from neuronal storage sites with resultant elevation of blood pressure. While most foods contain negligible amounts or no tyramine, a few food products (see WARNINGS) may contain large amounts of tyramine that represent a potential risk for patients with significant inhibition of intestinal MAO-A resulting from administration of MAOIs. Tyraminecontaining nutritional supplements should be avoided by patients taking EMSAM (selegiline transdermal system).

Animal studies have indicated the transdermal administration of selegiline via EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours allows for critical levels of MAO inhibition to be achieved in the brain while avoiding levels of gastrointestinal inhibition. To further define the risk of hypertensive crises with use of EMSAM, several Phase I tyramine challenge studies were conducted both with and without food.

Fourteen tyramine challenge studies including 214 healthy subjects (age range 18 – 65; 31 subjects > 50 years of age) were conducted to determine the pressor effects of oral tyramine with concurrent EMSAM treatment (6 mg/24 hours – 12 mg/24 hours), measured as the dose of tyramine required to raise systolic blood pressure by 30 mmHg (TYR30). Studies were conducted with and without concomitant administration of food. Studies conducted with food are most relevant to clinical practice since tyramine typically will be consumed in food. A high-tyramine meal is considered to contain up to 40 mg of tyramine.

One study using a crossover design in 13 subjects investigated tyramine pressor doses (TYR30) after administration of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours and oral selegiline (5 mg twice daily) for 9 days. Mean pressor doses (TYR30) of tyramine capsules administered without food were 338 mg and 385 mg in subjects treated with EMSAM and oral selegiline, respectively.

Another study using a crossover design in 10 subjects investigated tyramine pressor doses after administration of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours or tranylcypromine 30 mg/day for 10 days. Mean pressor doses (TYR30) of tyramine capsules administered without food were 270 mg in subjects treated with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours and 10 mg in subjects treated with tranylcypromine.

In a third crossover study, tyramine without food was administered to 12 subjects. The mean tyramine pressor doses (TYR30) after administration of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 9 and 33 days were 292 mg and 204 mg, respectively. The lowest pressor dose was 50 mg in one subject in the 33-day group.

Tyramine pressor doses were also studied in 11 subjects after extended treatment with EMSAM 12 mg/24 hours. At 30, 60, and 90 days, the mean pressor doses (TYR30) of tyramine administered without food were 95 mg, 72 mg, and 88 mg, respectively. The lowest pressor dose without food was 25 mg in 3 subjects at day 30 while on EMSAM 12 mg/24 hours. Eight subjects from this study, with a mean tyramine pressor dose of 64 mg at 90 days, were subsequently administered tyramine with food, resulting in a mean pressor dose of 172 mg (2.7 times the mean pressor dose observed without food, p < 0.003).

With the exception of one study (N = 153), the Phase III clinical development program was conducted without requiring a modified diet (N = 2553, 1606 at 6 mg/24 hours, and 947 at 9 mg/24 hours or 12 mg/24 hours). No hypertensive crises were reported in any patient receiving EMSAM.

In its entirety, the data for EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours support the recommendation that a modified diet is not required at this dose. Due to the more limited data available for EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours and 12 mg/24 hours, patients receiving these doses should follow Dietary Modifications Required for Patients Taking EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours and 12 mg/24 hours. (See WARNINGS.)

Warfarin
Warfarin is a substrate for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 metabolism pathways. In healthy volunteers titrated with Coumadin (warfarin sodium) to clinical levels of anticoagulation (INR of 1.5 to 2), coadministration with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the individual warfarin enantiomers. EMSAM did not alter the clinical pharmacodynamic effects of warfarin as measured by INR, Factor VII or Factor X levels.

There are no specific antidotes for EMSAM. If symptoms of overdosage occur, immediately remove the EMSAM system and institute appropriate supportive therapy. For contemporary consultation on the management of poisoning or overdosage, contact the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222- 1222.

EMSAM is considered to be an irreversible MAOI at therapeutic doses and, in overdosage, is likely to cause excessive MAO-A inhibition, and may result in the signs and symptoms resembling overdosage with other non-selective, oral MAOI antidepressants [e.g., tranylcypromine (Parnate®), phenelzine (Nardil®), or isocarboxazide (Marplan®)].

Overdosage with Non-Selective MAO Inhibition

NOTE: The following is provided for reference only; it does not describe events that have actually been observed with selegiline in overdosage. No information regarding overdose by ingestion of EMSAM is available.

Typical signs and symptoms associated with overdosage of non-selective MAOI antidepressants may not appear immediately. Delays of up to 12 hours between ingestion of drug and the appearance of signs may occur, and peak effects may not be observed for 24 – 48 hours. Since death has been reported following overdosage with MAOI agents, hospitalization with close monitoring during this period is essential.

Overdosage with MAOI agents is typically associated with CNS and cardiovascular toxicity. Signs and symptoms of overdosage may include, alone or in combination, any of the following: drowsiness, dizziness, faintness, irritability, hyperactivity, agitation, severe headache, hallucinations, trismus, opisthotonos, convulsions, coma, rapid and irregular pulse, hypertension, hypotension and vascular collapse, precordial pain, respiratory depression and failure, hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, and cool, clammy skin. Type and intensity of symptoms may be related to extent of the overdosage.

Treatment should include supportive measures, with pharmacological intervention as appropriate. Symptoms may persist after drug washout because of the irreversible inhibitory effects of these agents on systemic MAO activity. With overdosage, in order to avoid the occurrence of hypertensive crisis (“cheese reaction”), dietary tyramine should be restricted for several weeks beyond recovery to permit regeneration of the peripheral MAO-A isoenzyme.

Uses

Initial Treatment

EMSAM should be applied to dry, intact skin on the upper torso (below the neck and above the waist), upper thigh or the outer surface of the upper arm once every 24 hours. The recommended starting dose and target dose for EMSAM is 6 mg/24 hours. EMSAM has been systematically evaluated and shown to be effective in a dose range of 6 mg/24 hours to 12 mg/24 hours. However, the trials were not designed to assess if higher doses are more effective than the lowest effective dose of 6 mg/24 hours. Based on clinical judgment, if dose increases are indicated for individual patients, they should occur in dose increments of 3 mg/24 hours (up to a maximum dose of 12 mg/24 hours) at intervals of no less than 2 weeks. As with all antidepressant drugs, full antidepressant effect may be delayed.

Patients should be informed that tyramine-rich foods and beverages should be avoided beginning on the first day of EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours or 12 mg/24 hours treatment and should continue to be avoided for 2 weeks after a dose reduction to EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours or following the discontinuation of EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours or 12 mg/24 hours (see WARNINGS).

Special Populations

EMSAM at any dos e should not be us ed in children under the age of 12 years even when administered with dietary modifications. EMSAM is not approved for us e in pediatric patients.

No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild to moderate renal or hepatic impairment. The recommended dose for elderly patients (≥ 65 years) is EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours daily. Dose increases, in the elderly, should be made with caution and patients should be closely observed for postural changes in blood pressure throughout treatment.

to Use EMSAM

  1. EMSAM should be applied to dry, intact skin on the upper torso (below the neck and above the waist), upper thigh or the outer surface of the upper arm. A new application site should be selected with each new patch to avoid re-application to the same site on consecutive days. Patches should be applied at approximately the same time each day.
  2. Apply the patch to an area of skin that is not hairy, oily, irritated, broken, scarred or calloused. Do not place the patch where your clothing is tight, which could cause the patch to rub off.
  3. After you have selected the site for your patch, wash the area gently and thoroughly with soap and warm water. Rinse until all soap is removed. Dry the area with a clean dry towel.
  4. Just before you apply the patch, remove it from the pouch. Remove half of the protective backing and throw it away. Try not to touch the exposed side (sticky side) of the patch, because the medicine could come off on your fingers.
  5. Press the sticky side of the patch firmly against the skin site that was just washed and dried. Remove the second half of the protective liner and press the remaining sticky side firmly against your skin. Make sure that the patch is flat against the skin (there should be no bumps or folds in the patch) and is sticking securely. Be sure the edges are stuck to the skin surface.
  6. After you have applied the patch, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water to remove any medicine that may have gotten on them. Do not touch your eyes until after you have washed your hands.
  7. After 24 hours, remove the patch. Do not touch the sticky side. As soon as you have removed the patch, fold it so that the sticky side sticks to itself.
  8. Throw away the folded patch so that children and/or pets cannot reach it.
  9. Wash your hands with soap and water.
  10. If your patch falls off, apply a new patch to a new site and resume your previous schedule.
  11. Only one EMSAM patch should be worn at a time.
  12. Avoid exposing the EMSAM application site to external sources of direct heat, such as heating pads or electric blankets, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, heated water beds, and prolonged direct sunlight.

Maintenance Treatment

It is generally agreed that episodes of depression require several months or longer of sustained pharmacologic therapy. The benefit of maintaining depressed patients on therapy with EMSAM at a dose of 6 mg/24 hours after achieving a responder status for an average duration of about 25 days was demonstrated in a controlled trial (see Clinical Efficacy Trials and INDICATIONS AND USAGE). The physician who elects to use EMSAM for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.

Side Effects

Adverse Findings Observed in Short-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials

Adverse Events Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

Among 817 depressed patients who received EMSAM at doses of either 3 mg/24 hours (151 patients), 6 mg/24 hours (550 patients) or 6 mg/24 hours, 9 mg/24 hours, and 12 mg/24 hours (116 patients) in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 weeks in duration, 7.1% discontinued treatment due to an adverse event as compared with 3.6% of 668 patients receiving placebo. The only adverse event associated with discontinuation, in at least 1% of EMSAM-treated patients at a rate at least twice that of placebo, was application site reaction (2% EMSAM vs. 0% placebo).

Adverse Events Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among EMSAM-Treated Patients

Table 2 enumerates adverse events that occurred at an incidence of 2% or more (rounded to the nearest percent) among 817 depressed patients who received EMSAM in doses ranging from 3 to 12 mg/24 hours in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 weeks in duration. Events included are those occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with EMSAM and for which the incidence in patients treated with EMSAM was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.

Only one adverse event was associated with a reporting of at least 5% in the EMSAM group, and a rate at least twice that in the placebo group, in the pool of short-term, placebo-controlled studies: application site reactions (see Application Site Reactions, below). In one such study which utilized higher mean doses of EMSAM than that in the entire study pool, the following events met these criteria: application site reactions, insomnia, diarrhea, and pharyngitis.

These figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physicians with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidence rate in the population studied.

Table 2. Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events:Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials for Major Depressive Disorder With EMSAM*

Body System/Preferred Term EMSAM
(N = 817)
Placebo (N = 668)
(% of Patients Reporting Event)
Body as a Whole
Headache 18 17
Digestive
Diarrhea 9 7
Dyspepsia 4 3
Nervous
Insomnia 12 7
Dry Mouth 8 6
Respiratory
Pharyngitis 3 2
Sinusitis 3 1
Skin
Application Site Reaction 24 12
Rash 4 2

*Events reported by at least 2% of patients treated with EMSAM are included, except the following events, which had an incidence on placebo treatment ≥ EMSAM: infection, nausea, dizziness, pain, abdominal pain, nervousness, back pain, asthenia, anxiety, flu syndrome, accidental injury, somnolence, rhinitis, and palpitations.

Application Site Reactions

In the pool of short-term, placebo-controlled major depressive disorder studies, application site reactions (ASRs) were reported in 24% of EMSAM-treated patients and 12% of placebo-treated patients. Most ASRs were mild or moderate in severity. None were considered serious. ASRs led to dropout in 2% of EMSAM-treated patients and no placebo-treated patients.

In one such study which utilized higher mean doses of EMSAM, ASRs were reported in 40% of EMSAM-treated patients and 20% of placebo-treated patients. Most of the ASRs in this study were described as erythema and most resolved spontaneously, requiring no treatment. When treatment was administered, it most commonly consisted of dermatological preparations of corticosteroids.

Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction with MAO Inhibitors

Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment.

Reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, in part because patients and physicians may be reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance cited in product labeling are likely to underestimate their actual incidence. Table 3 shows that the incidence rates of sexual side effects in patients with major depressive disorder are comparable to the placebo rates in placebo-controlled trials.

Table 3. Incidence of Sexual Side Effects in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials With EMSAM

(N = 513)(N = 412)

Adverse Event EMSAM Placebo
IN MALES ONLY
(N = 304) (N = 256)
Abnormal Ejaculation 1.0% 0.0%
Decreased Libido 0.7% 0.0%
Impotence 0.7% 0.4%
Anorgasmia 0.2% 0.0%
IN FEMALES ONLY
(N = 513) (N = 412)
Decreased Libido 0.0% 0.2%

There are no adequately designed studies examining sexual dysfunction with EMSAM treatment.

Vital Sign Changes

EMSAM and placebo groups were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in vital signs (pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure), and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. In the pool of short-term, placebo-controlled major depressive disorder studies, 3.0% of EMSAM-treated patients and 1.5% of placebo-treated patients experienced a low systolic blood pressure, defined as a reading less than or equal to 90 mmHg with a change from baseline of at least 20 mmHg. In one study which utilized higher mean doses of EMSAM, 6.2% of EMSAM-treated patients and no placebotreated patients experienced a low standing systolic blood pressure by these criteria. In the pool of short-term major depressive disorder trials, 9.8% of EMSAM-treated patients and 6.7% of placebo-treated patients experienced a notable orthostatic change in blood pressure, defined as a decrease of at least 10 mmHg in mean blood pressure with postural change.

Weight Changes

In placebo-controlled studies (6 – 8 weeks), the incidence of patients who experienced ≥ 5% weight gain or weight loss is shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Incidence of Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Placebo-Controlled Trials With EMSAM

Weight Change EMSAM Placebo
(N = 757) (N = 614)
Gained ≥ 5% 2.1% 2.4%
Lost ≥ 5% 5.0% 2.8%

In these trials, the mean change in body weight among EMSAM-treated patients was -1.2 lbs compared to + 0.3 lbs in placebo-treated patients.

Laboratory Changes

EMSAM and placebo groups were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in various serum chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis variables, and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. These analyses revealed no clinically important changes in laboratory test parameters associated with EMSAM.

ECG Changes

Electrocardiograms (ECGs) from EMSAM (N = 817) and placebo (N = 668) groups in controlled studies were compared with respect to (1) mean change from baseline in various ECG parameters, and (2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables.

No clinically meaningful changes in ECG parameters from baseline to final visit were observed for patients in controlled studies.

Other Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of EMSAM

During the premarketing assessment in major depressive disorder, EMSAM was administered to 2036 patients in Phase III studies. The conditions and duration of exposure to EMSAM varied and included double-blind and open-label studies.

In the tabulations that follow, reported adverse events were classified using a standard COSTARTbased dictionary terminology. All reported adverse events are included except those already listed in Table 2 or elsewhere in labeling, and those events occurring in only one patient. It is important to emphasize that although the events occurred during treatment with EMSAM,they were not necessarily caused by it.

Events are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: frequent adverse events are those occurring on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events are those occurring in less than 1/100 patients but at least 1/1000 patients; rare events are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.

Body as a Whole: Frequent: Chest pain, neck pain. Infrequent: Bacterial infection, fever, cyst, fungal infection, chills, viral infection, suicide attempt, neck rigidity, pelvic pain, photosensitivity reaction, face edema, flank pain, hernia, intentional injury, neoplasm, generalized edema, overdose. Rare: Body odor, halitosis, heat stroke, parasitic infection, malaise, moniliasis.

Cardiovascular System: Frequent: Hypertension. Infrequent: Vasodilatation, tachycardia, migraine, syncope, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disorder. Rare: Myocardial infarct.

Digestive System: Frequent: Constipation, flatulence, anorexia, gastroenteritis, vomiting. Infrequent: Increased appetite, thirst, periodontal abscess, eructation, gastritis, colitis, dysphagia, tongue edema, glossitis, increased salivation, abnormal liver function tests, melena, tongue disorder, tooth caries. Rare: GI neoplasia, rectal hemorrhage.

Hemic and Lymphatic System: Frequent: Ecchymosis. Infrequent: Anemia, lymphadenopathy. Rare: Leukocytosis, leukopenia, petechia.

Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: Peripheral edema. Infrequent: Hyperglycemia, increased SGPT, edema, hypercholesteremia, increased SGOT, dehydration, alcohol intolerance, hyponatremia, increased lactic dehydrogenase. Rare: Increased alkaline phosphatase, bilirubinemia, hypoglycemic reaction.

Musculoskeletal System: Frequent: Myalgia, pathological fracture. Infrequent: Arthralgia, generalized spasm, arthritis, myasthenia, arthrosis, tenosynovitis. Rare: Osteoporosis.

Nervous System: Frequent: Agitation, paresthesia, thinking abnormal, amnesia. Infrequent: Leg cramps, tremor, vertigo, hypertonia, twitching, emotional lability, confusion, manic reaction, depersonalization, hyperkinesias, hostility, myoclonus, circumoral paresthesia, hyperesthesia, increased libido, euphoria, neurosis, paranoid reaction. Rare: Ataxia.

Respiratory System: Frequent: Cough increased, bronchitis. Infrequent: Dyspnea, asthma, pneumonia, laryngismus. Rare: Epistaxis, laryngitis, yawn.

Skin and Appendages: Frequent: Pruritus, sweating, acne. Infrequent: Dry skin, maculopapular rash, contact dermatitis, urticaria, herpes simplex, alopecia, vesiculobullous rash, herpes zoster, skin hypertrophy, fungal dermatitis, skin benign neoplasm. Rare: Eczema.

Special Senses: Frequent: Taste perversion, tinnitus. Infrequent: Dry eyes, conjunctivitis, ear pain, eye pain, otitis media, parosmia. Rare: Mydriasis, otitis external, visual field defect.

Urogenital System: Frequent: Urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia. Infrequent: Urinary tract infection (male), vaginitis, cystitis (female), hematuria (female), unintended pregnancy, dysuria (female), urinary urgency (male and female), vaginal moniliasis, menorrhagia, urination impaired (male), breast neoplasm (female), kidney calculus (female), vaginal hemorrhage, amenorrhea, breast pain, polyuria (female).

Precautions

General

Hypotension
As with other MAOIs, postural hypotension, sometimes with orthostatic symptoms, can occur with EMSAM therapy. In short-term, placebo-controlled depression studies, the incidence of orthostatic hypotension (i.e., a decrease of 10 mmHg or greater in mean blood pressure when changing position from supine or sitting to standing) was 9.8% in EMSAM-treated patients and 6.7% in placebo-treated patients. It is recommended that elderly patients treated with EMSAM be closely observed for postural changes in blood pressure throughout treatment. Dose increases should be made cautiously in patients with pre-existing orthostasis. Postural hypotension may be relieved by having the patient recline until the symptoms have abated. Patients should be cautioned to change positions gradually. Patients displaying orthostatic symptoms should have appropriate dosage adjustments as warranted.

Activation of Mania/Hypomania
During Phase III trials, a manic reaction occurred in 8/2036 (0.4%) patients treated with EMSAM. Activation of mania/hypomania can occur in a small proportion of patients with major affective disorder treated with other marketed antidepressants. As with all antidepressants, EMSAM should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania.

Use in Patients With Concomitant Illness
Clinical experience with EMSAM in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. Caution is advised when using EMSAM in patients with disorders or conditions that can produce altered metabolism or hemodynamic responses.

EMSAM has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a history of recent myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Such patients were generally excluded from clinical studies during the product’s premarketing testing.

No ECG abnormalities attributable to EMSAM were observed in clinical trials.

Although studies of phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine did not reveal pharmacokinetic drug interactions with EMSAM, it is prudent to avoid the concomitant use of sympathomimetic agents, such as some decongestants.

Information for Patients
Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with EMSAM and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide about “Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and other Serious Mental Illness, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions” is available for EMSAM. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.

Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking EMSAM.

Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk
Patients, their families and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment or when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient’s prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly change in the medication.

General

Patients should be advised not to use oral selegiline while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised not to use carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised not to use meperidine and analgesic agents such as tramadol, methadone, and propoxyphene.

Patients should be advised not to use sympathomimetic agents while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised not to use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, and St. John’s wort), dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, e.g., venlafaxine and duloxetine), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, e.g., imipramine and amitriptyline), mirtazapine, oral selegiline or other MAOIs (e.g., isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine), bupropion hydrochloride or buspirone hydrochloride while on EMSAM therapy.

EMSAM (selegiline transdermal system) has not been shown to impair psychomotor performance; however, any psychoactive drug may potentially impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that EMSAM therapy does not impair their ability to engage in such activities.

Patients should be told that, although EMSAM has not been shown to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol, the concomitant use of EMSAM and alcohol in depressed patients is not recommended.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, including herbals, because of the potential for drug interactions. Patients should also be advised to avoid tyramine-containing nutritional supplements and any cough medicine containing dextromethorphan.

Patients should be advised to use EMSAM exactly as prescribed. The need for dietary modifications at higher doses should be explained, and a brief description of hypertensive crisis provided. Rare hypertensive reactions with oral selegiline at doses recommended for Parkinson’s disease and associated with dietary influences have been reported. The clinical relevance to EMSAM is unknown.

Patients should be advised that certain tyramine-rich foods and beverages should be avoided while on EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours or EMSAM 12 mg/24 hours, and for 2 weeks following discontinuation of EMSAM at these doses (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).

Patients should be instructed to immediately report the occurrence of the following acute symptoms: severe headache, neck stiffness, heart racing or palpitations, or other sudden or unusual symptoms.

Patients should be advised to avoid exposing the EMSAM application site to external sources of direct heat, such as heating pads or electric blankets, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, heated water beds, and prolonged direct sunlight since heat may result in an increase in the amount of selegiline absorbed from the EMSAM patch and produce elevated serum levels of selegiline.

Patients should be advised to change position gradually if lightheaded, faint, or dizzy while on EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during EMSAM therapy.

Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they are breast-feeding an infant.

While patients may notice improvement with EMSAM therapy in 1 to several weeks, they should be advised of the importance of continuing drug treatment as directed.

Patients should be advised not to cut the EMSAM system into smaller portions.

For instructions on how to use EMSAM, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, How to Use EMSAM.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis
In an oral carcinogenicity study in rats, selegiline given in the diet for 104 weeks was not carcinogenic up to the highest evaluable dose tested (3.5 mg/kg/day, which is 3 times the oral maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis).

Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with transdermal administration of selegiline.

Mutagenesis
Selegiline induced mutations and chromosomal damage when tested in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay with and without metabolic activation. Selegiline was negative in the Ames assay, the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay in human lymphocytes, and the in vivo oral mouse micronucleus assay.

Impairment of Fertility
A mating and fertility study was conducted in male and female rats at transdermal doses of 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg/day of selegiline (8, 24, and 60 times the maximum recommended human dose of EMSAM [12 mg/24 hours] on a mg/m basis). Slight decreases in sperm concentration and total sperm count were observed at the high dose; however, no significant adverse effects on fertility or reproductive performance were observed.

Teratorgenic Effects – Pregnancy Category C
In an embryofetal development study in rats, dams were treated with transdermal selegiline during the period of organogenesis at doses of 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg/day (8, 24, and 60 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of EMSAM [12 mg/24 hours] on a mg/m basis). At the highest dose there was a decrease in fetal weight and slight increases in malformations, delayed ossification (also seen at the mid dose), and embryofetal post-implantation lethality. Concentrations of selegiline and its metabolites in fetal plasma were generally similar to those in maternal plasma. In an oral embryofetal development study in rats, a decrease in fetal weight occurred at the highest dose tested (36 mg/kg; noeffect dose 12 mg/kg); no increase in malformations was seen.

In an embryofetal development study in rabbits, dams were treated with transdermal selegiline during the period of organogenesis at doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 mg/kg/day (4, 16, and 64 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis). A slight increase in visceral malformations was seen at the high dose. In an oral embryofetal development study in rabbits, increases in total resorptions and post-implantation loss, and a decrease in the number of live fetuses per dam, occurred at the highest dose tested (50 mg/kg; no-effect dose 25 mg/kg).

In a prenatal and postnatal development study in rats, dams were treated with transdermal selegiline at doses of 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg/day (8, 24, and 60 times the MRHD on a mg/m basis) on days 6 – 21 of gestation and days 1 – 21 of the lactation period. An increase in post-implantation loss was seen at the mid and high doses, and an increase in stillborn pups was seen at the high dose. Decreases in pup weight (throughout lactation and post-weaning periods) and survival (throughout lactation period), retarded pup physical development, and pup epididymal and testicular hypoplasia, were seen at the mid and high doses. Retarded neurobehavioral and sexual development was seen at all doses. Adverse effects on pup reproductive performance, as evidenced by decreases in implantations and litter size, were seen at the high dose. These findings suggest persistent effects on the offspring of treated dams. A no-effect dose was not established for developmental toxicity. In this study, concentrations of selegiline and its metabolites in milk were ~ 15 and 5 times, respectively, the concentrations in plasma, indicating that the pups were directly dosed during the lactation period.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. EMSAM should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Labor and Delivery
The effect of EMSAM on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

Nursing Mothers
In a prenatal and postnatal study of transdermal selegiline in rats, selegiline and metabolites were excreted into the milk of lactating rats. The levels of selegiline and metabolites in milk were approximately 15 and 5 times, respectively, steady-state levels of selegiline and metabolites in maternal plasma. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised administering EMSAM to a nursing mother.

Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established (see BOX WARNINGand WARNINGS, Clinical Wors ening and Suicide Risk).

Anyone considering the use of EMSAM (selegiline transdermal system) in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.

Due to limited data, EMSAM at any dose should not be used in children under the age of 12 years even when administered with dietary modifications. EMSAM is not approved for use in pediatric patients.

Commercially available doses of EMSAM have not been studied in children under the age of 12 years. Limited pharmacokinetic data with lower doses than in the commercially available formulations suggest that children under the age of 12 years treated with EMSAM may be exposed to increased levels of selegiline compared to adolescents or adults. Therefore, the possibility exists for an increased risk of hypertensive crisis, even at the lowest dose of commercially available EMSAM, when administered without dietary modifications.

Geriatric Use
One hundred ninety-eight (198) elderly (≥ 65 years of age) patients participated in clinical studies with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours to 12 mg/24 hours. There were no overall differences in effectiveness between elderly and younger patients. In short-term, placebo-controlled depression trials, patients age 50 and older appeared to be at higher risk for rash (4.4% EMSAM vs. 0% placebo) than younger patients (3.4% EMSAM vs. 2.4% placebo).

Interactions

Drug Interactions

The potential for drug interactions between EMSAM and a variety of drugs was examined in several human studies. Drug interaction studies described below were conducted with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours. Although no differences are expected, drug interaction studies have not been conducted at higher doses (see In vitro Metabolism). In all of the studies described below, no drug-related adverse events were noted that required discontinuation of any subjects. Further, the incidence and nature of the adverse events were consistent with those known for selegiline or the test agent.

Alcohol
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alcohol (0.75 mg/kg) alone or in combination with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days of treatment was examined in 16 healthy volunteers. No clinically significant differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of alcohol or the pharmacokinetics of selegiline during co-administration. Although EMSAM has not been shown to increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol (0.75 mg/kg) and failed to alter the pharmacokinetic properties of alcohol, patients should be advised that the use of alcohol is not recommended while taking EMSAM.

Alprazolam
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days, co-administration with alprazolam (15 mg/day), a CYP3A4/5 substrate, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or alprazolam.

Carbamazepine
Carbamazepine is an enzyme inducer and typically causes decreases in drug exposure; however, slightly increased levels of selegiline and its metabolites were seen after single application of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours in subjects who had received carbamazepine (400 mg/day) for 14 days. Changes in plasma selegiline concentrations were nearly two-fold, and variable across the subject population. The clinical relevance of these observations is unknown. Carbamazepine is contraindicated with MAOIs, including selegiline (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Ibuprofen
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 11 days, combined administration with the CYP2C9 substrate ibuprofen (800 mg single dose) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or ibuprofen.

Ketoconazole
Seven-day treatment with ketoconazole (200 mg/day), a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, did not affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of selegiline in subjects who received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days and no differences in the pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole were observed.

Levothyroxine
In healthy subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, single dose administration with levothyroxine (150 μg) did not alter the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or levothyroxine (as judged by T and T plasma levels).

Olanzapine
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, co-administration with olanzapine, a substrate for CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and possibly CYP2A6, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or olanzapine.

Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 9 days, co-administration with PPA (25 mg every 4 hours for 24 hours) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of PPA. There was a higher incidence of significant blood pressure elevations with the co-administration of EMSAM and PPA than with PPA alone, suggesting a possible pharmacodynamic interaction. It is prudent to avoid the concomitant use of sympathomimetic agents with EMSAM.

Pseudoephedrine
EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, co-administered with pseudoephedrine (60 mg, 3 times a day) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of pseudoephedrine. The effect of pseudoephedrine on EMSAM was not examined. There were no clinically significant changes in blood pressure during pseudoephedrine administration alone, or in combination with EMSAM. Nonetheless, it is prudent to avoid the concomitant use of sympathomimetic agents with EMSAM.]

Risperidone
In subjects who had received EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 10 days, co-administration with risperidone (2 mg per day for 7 days), a substrate for CYP2D6, did not affect the pharmacokinetics of either selegiline or risperidone.

Tyramine
Selegiline (the drug substance of EMSAM) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), a ubiquitous intracellular enzyme. MAO exists as two isoenzymes, referred to as MAO-A and MAO-B. Selegiline shows greater affinity for MAO-B; however, as selegiline concentration increases, this selectivity is lost with resulting dose-related inhibition of MAO-A. Intestinal MAO is predominantly type A, while in the brain both isoenzymes exist.

MAO plays a vital physiological role in terminating the biological activity of both endogenous and exogenous amines. In addition to their role in the catabolism of monoamines in the CNS, MAOs are also important in the catabolism of exogenous amines found in a variety of foods and drugs. MAO in the gastrointestinal tract (primarily type A) provides protection from exogenous amines with vasopressor actions, such as tyramine, which if absorbed intact can cause a hypertensive crisis, the so-called “cheese reaction.” If a large amount of tyramine is absorbed systemically, it is taken up by adrenergic neurons and causes norepinephrine release from neuronal storage sites with resultant elevation of blood pressure. While most foods contain negligible amounts or no tyramine, a few food products (see WARNINGS) may contain large amounts of tyramine that represent a potential risk for patients with significant inhibition of intestinal MAO-A resulting from administration of MAOIs. Tyraminecontaining nutritional supplements should be avoided by patients taking EMSAM (selegiline transdermal system).

Animal studies have indicated the transdermal administration of selegiline via EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours allows for critical levels of MAO inhibition to be achieved in the brain while avoiding levels of gastrointestinal inhibition. To further define the risk of hypertensive crises with use of EMSAM, several Phase I tyramine challenge studies were conducted both with and without food.

Fourteen tyramine challenge studies including 214 healthy subjects (age range 18 – 65; 31 subjects > 50 years of age) were conducted to determine the pressor effects of oral tyramine with concurrent EMSAM treatment (6 mg/24 hours – 12 mg/24 hours), measured as the dose of tyramine required to raise systolic blood pressure by 30 mmHg (TYR30). Studies were conducted with and without concomitant administration of food. Studies conducted with food are most relevant to clinical practice since tyramine typically will be consumed in food. A high-tyramine meal is considered to contain up to 40 mg of tyramine.

One study using a crossover design in 13 subjects investigated tyramine pressor doses (TYR30) after administration of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours and oral selegiline (5 mg twice daily) for 9 days. Mean pressor doses (TYR30) of tyramine capsules administered without food were 338 mg and 385 mg in subjects treated with EMSAM and oral selegiline, respectively.

Another study using a crossover design in 10 subjects investigated tyramine pressor doses after administration of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours or tranylcypromine 30 mg/day for 10 days. Mean pressor doses (TYR30) of tyramine capsules administered without food were 270 mg in subjects treated with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours and 10 mg in subjects treated with tranylcypromine.

In a third crossover study, tyramine without food was administered to 12 subjects. The mean tyramine pressor doses (TYR30) after administration of EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 9 and 33 days were 292 mg and 204 mg, respectively. The lowest pressor dose was 50 mg in one subject in the 33-day group.

Tyramine pressor doses were also studied in 11 subjects after extended treatment with EMSAM 12 mg/24 hours. At 30, 60, and 90 days, the mean pressor doses (TYR30) of tyramine administered without food were 95 mg, 72 mg, and 88 mg, respectively. The lowest pressor dose without food was 25 mg in 3 subjects at day 30 while on EMSAM 12 mg/24 hours. Eight subjects from this study, with a mean tyramine pressor dose of 64 mg at 90 days, were subsequently administered tyramine with food, resulting in a mean pressor dose of 172 mg (2.7 times the mean pressor dose observed without food, p < 0.003).

With the exception of one study (N = 153), the Phase III clinical development program was conducted without requiring a modified diet (N = 2553, 1606 at 6 mg/24 hours, and 947 at 9 mg/24 hours or 12 mg/24 hours). No hypertensive crises were reported in any patient receiving EMSAM.

In its entirety, the data for EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours support the recommendation that a modified diet is not required at this dose. Due to the more limited data available for EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours and 12 mg/24 hours, patients receiving these doses should follow Dietary Modifications Required for Patients Taking EMSAM 9 mg/24 hours and 12 mg/24 hours. (See WARNINGS.)

Warfarin
Warfarin is a substrate for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 metabolism pathways. In healthy volunteers titrated with Coumadin (warfarin sodium) to clinical levels of anticoagulation (INR of 1.5 to 2), coadministration with EMSAM 6 mg/24 hours for 7 days did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the individual warfarin enantiomers. EMSAM did not alter the clinical pharmacodynamic effects of warfarin as measured by INR, Factor VII or Factor X levels.

Overdose

There are no specific antidotes for EMSAM. If symptoms of overdosage occur, immediately remove the EMSAM system and institute appropriate supportive therapy. For contemporary consultation on the management of poisoning or overdosage, contact the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222- 1222.

EMSAM is considered to be an irreversible MAOI at therapeutic doses and, in overdosage, is likely to cause excessive MAO-A inhibition, and may result in the signs and symptoms resembling overdosage with other non-selective, oral MAOI antidepressants [e.g., tranylcypromine (Parnate®), phenelzine (Nardil®), or isocarboxazide (Marplan®)].

Overdosage with Non-Selective MAO Inhibition

NOTE: The following is provided for reference only; it does not describe events that have actually been observed with selegiline in overdosage. No information regarding overdose by ingestion of EMSAM is available.

Typical signs and symptoms associated with overdosage of non-selective MAOI antidepressants may not appear immediately. Delays of up to 12 hours between ingestion of drug and the appearance of signs may occur, and peak effects may not be observed for 24 – 48 hours. Since death has been reported following overdosage with MAOI agents, hospitalization with close monitoring during this period is essential.

Overdosage with MAOI agents is typically associated with CNS and cardiovascular toxicity. Signs and symptoms of overdosage may include, alone or in combination, any of the following: drowsiness, dizziness, faintness, irritability, hyperactivity, agitation, severe headache, hallucinations, trismus, opisthotonos, convulsions, coma, rapid and irregular pulse, hypertension, hypotension and vascular collapse, precordial pain, respiratory depression and failure, hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, and cool, clammy skin. Type and intensity of symptoms may be related to extent of the overdosage.

Treatment should include supportive measures, with pharmacological intervention as appropriate. Symptoms may persist after drug washout because of the irreversible inhibitory effects of these agents on systemic MAO activity. With overdosage, in order to avoid the occurrence of hypertensive crisis (“cheese reaction”), dietary tyramine should be restricted for several weeks beyond recovery to permit regeneration of the peripheral MAO-A isoenzyme.

Interpreting the GeneSight® Test:
Gene-Drug Interaction Chart

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