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Medications: Zyprexa® – olanzapine

MEDICATIONS

Zyprexa® – olanzapine (View the FDA label)

ZYPREXA® (olanzapine) is an atypical antipsychotic indicated:

As oral formulation for the:

  • Treatment of schizophrenia. (1.1)
    • Adults: Efficacy was established in three clinical trials in patients with schizophrenia: two 6-week trials and one maintenance trial. (14.1)
    • Adolescents (ages 13-17): Efficacy was established in one 6­ week trial in patients with schizophrenia (14.1). The increased potential (in adolescents compared with adults) for weight gain and dyslipidemia may lead clinicians to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents. (1.1)

    Acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder and maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. (1.2)

    • Adults: Efficacy was established in three clinical trials in patients with manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder: two 3- to 4-week trials and one maintenance trial. (14.2)
    • Adolescents (ages 13-17): Efficacy was established in one 3­ week trial in patients with manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (14.2). The increased potential (in adolescents compared with adults) for weight gain and dyslipidemia may lead clinicians to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents. (1.2)
  • Medication therapy for pediatric patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder should be undertaken only after a thorough diagnostic evaluation and with careful consideration of the potential risks. (1.3)
  • Adjunct to valproate or lithium in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. (1.2)
    • Efficacy was established in two 6-week clinical trials in adults (14.2). Maintenance efficacy has not been systematically evaluated.

As ZYPREXA IntraMuscular for the:

  • Treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I mania. (1.4)
    • Efficacy was established in three 1-day trials in adults. (14.3)

As ZYPREXA and Fluoxetine in Combination for the:

  • Treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. (1.5)
    • Efficacy was established with Symbyax (olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination); refer to the product label for Symbyax.
  • Treatment of treatment resistant depression. (1.6)
    • Efficacy was established with Symbyax (olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination); refer to the product label for Symbyax.

Most common adverse reactions (≥5% and at least twice that for placebo) associated with:

Oral Olanzapine Monotherapy:

  • Schizophrenia (Adults) – postural hypotension, constipation, weight gain, dizziness, personality disorder, akathisia (6.1)
  • Schizophrenia (Adolescents) – sedation, weight increased, headache, increased appetite, dizziness, abdominal pain, pain in extremity, fatigue, dry mouth (6.3)
  • Manic or Mixed Episodes, Bipolar I Disorder (Adults) – asthenia, dry mouth, constipation, increased appetite, somnolence, dizziness, tremor (6.1)
  • Manic or Mixed Episodes, Bipolar I Disorder (Adolescents) – sedation, weight increased, increased appetite, headache, fatigue, dizziness, dry mouth, abdominal pain, pain in extremity (6.3)

Combination of ZYPREXA and Lithium or Valproate:

  • Manic or Mixed Episodes, Bipolar I Disorder (Adults) – dry mouth, weight gain, increased appetite, dizziness, back pain, constipation, speech disorder, increased salivation, amnesia, paresthesia (6.1)

ZYPREXA and Fluoxetine in Combination: Also refer to the Adverse Reactions section of the package insert for Symbyax. (6)

ZYPREXA IntraMuscular for Injection:

  • Agitation with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Mania (Adults) – somnolence (6.1)
  • Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis: Increased risk of death and increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack). (5.1)
  • Suicide: The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in schizophrenia and in bipolar I disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy; when using in combination with fluoxetine, also refer to the Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions sections of the package insert for Symbyax. (5.2)
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: Manage with immediate discontinuation and close monitoring. (5.3)
  • Metabolic Changes: Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. (5.4)
    • Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus: In some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients taking olanzapine. Patients taking olanzapine should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia and undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment. (5.4)
    • Dyslipidemia: Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed. Appropriate clinical monitoring is recommended, including fasting blood lipid testing at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment. (5.4)
    • Weight Gain: Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight. (5.4)
  • Tardive Dyskinesia: Discontinue if clinically appropriate. (5.5)
  • Orthostatic Hypotension: Orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, bradycardia and, in some patients, syncope, may occur especially during initial dose titration. Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and those conditions that could affect hemodynamic responses. (5.6)
  • Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis: Has been reported with antipsychotics, including ZYPREXA. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low white blood cell count (WBC) or drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of ZYPREXA should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors. (5.7)
  • Seizures: Use cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold. (5.9)
  • Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment: Has potential to impair judgment, thinking, and motor skills. Use caution when operating machinery. (5.10)
  • Hyperprolactinemia: May elevate prolactin levels. (5.13)
  • Use in Combination with Fluoxetine, Lithium or Valproate: Also refer to the package inserts for Symbyax, lithium, or valproate. (5.14)
  • Laboratory Tests: Monitor fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment. (5.15)
  • Diazepam: May potentiate orthostatic hypotension. (7.1, 7.2)
  • Alcohol: May potentiate orthostatic hypotension. (7.1)
  • Carbamazepine: Increased clearance of olanzapine. (7.1)
  • Fluvoxamine: May increase olanzapine levels. (7.1)
  • ZYPREXA and Fluoxetine in Combination: Also refer to the Drug Interactions section of the package insert for Symbyax. (7.1)
  • CNS Acting Drugs: Caution should be used when taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs and alcohol. (7.2)
  • Antihypertensive Agents: Enhanced antihypertensive effect. (7.2)
  • Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists: May antagonize levodopa/dopamine agonists. (7.2)
  • Lorazepam (IM): Increased somnolence with IM olanzapine. (7.2)
  • Other Concomitant Drug Therapy: When using olanzapine in combination with lithium or valproate, refer to the Drug Interactions sections of the package insert for those products. (7.2)

Human Experience
In premarketing trials involving more than 3100 patients and/or normal subjects, accidental or intentional acute overdosage of olanzapine was identified in 67 patients. In the patient taking the largest identified amount, 300 mg, the only symptoms reported were drowsiness and slurred speech. In the limited number of patients who were evaluated in hospitals, including the patient taking 300 mg, there were no observations indicating an adverse change in laboratory analytes or ECG. Vital signs were usually within normal limits following overdoses.

In postmarketing reports of overdose with olanzapine alone, symptoms have been reported in the majority of cases. In symptomatic patients, symptoms with ≥10% incidence included agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, tachycardia, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma. Among less commonly reported symptoms were the following potentially medically serious reactions: aspiration, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiac arrhythmias (such as supraventricular tachycardia and 1 patient experiencing sinus pause with spontaneous resumption of normal rhythm), delirium, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression/arrest, convulsion, hypertension, and hypotension. Eli Lilly and Company has received reports of fatality in association with overdose of olanzapine alone. In 1 case of death, the amount of acutely ingested olanzapine was reported to be possibly as low as 450 mg of oral olanzapine; however, in another case, a patient was reported to survive an acute olanzapine ingestion of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Management of Overdose
For current information on the management of ZYPREXA (olanzapine) overdose, contact a certified poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation, which may include intubation. Gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. The administration of activated charcoal (1 g) reduced the Cmax and AUC of oral olanzapine by about 60%. As peak olanzapine levels are not typically obtained until about 6 hours after dosing, charcoal may be a useful treatment for olanzapine overdose.

The possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias.

There is no specific antidote to olanzapine. Therefore, appropriate supportive measures should be initiated. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents. (Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetics with beta-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of olanzapine-induced alpha blockade.) Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers. For specific information about overdosage with lithium or valproate, refer to the Overdosage section of the package inserts for these products.

For specific information about overdosage with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, refer to the Overdosage section of the Symbyax package insert.

Uses

ZYPREXA® (olanzapine) is an atypical antipsychotic indicated:

As oral formulation for the:

  • Treatment of schizophrenia. (1.1)
    • Adults: Efficacy was established in three clinical trials in patients with schizophrenia: two 6-week trials and one maintenance trial. (14.1)
    • Adolescents (ages 13-17): Efficacy was established in one 6­ week trial in patients with schizophrenia (14.1). The increased potential (in adolescents compared with adults) for weight gain and dyslipidemia may lead clinicians to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents. (1.1)

    Acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder and maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. (1.2)

    • Adults: Efficacy was established in three clinical trials in patients with manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder: two 3- to 4-week trials and one maintenance trial. (14.2)
    • Adolescents (ages 13-17): Efficacy was established in one 3­ week trial in patients with manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (14.2). The increased potential (in adolescents compared with adults) for weight gain and dyslipidemia may lead clinicians to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents. (1.2)
  • Medication therapy for pediatric patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder should be undertaken only after a thorough diagnostic evaluation and with careful consideration of the potential risks. (1.3)
  • Adjunct to valproate or lithium in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. (1.2)
    • Efficacy was established in two 6-week clinical trials in adults (14.2). Maintenance efficacy has not been systematically evaluated.

As ZYPREXA IntraMuscular for the:

  • Treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I mania. (1.4)
    • Efficacy was established in three 1-day trials in adults. (14.3)

As ZYPREXA and Fluoxetine in Combination for the:

  • Treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. (1.5)
    • Efficacy was established with Symbyax (olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination); refer to the product label for Symbyax.
  • Treatment of treatment resistant depression. (1.6)
    • Efficacy was established with Symbyax (olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination); refer to the product label for Symbyax.
Side Effects

Most common adverse reactions (≥5% and at least twice that for placebo) associated with:

Oral Olanzapine Monotherapy:

  • Schizophrenia (Adults) – postural hypotension, constipation, weight gain, dizziness, personality disorder, akathisia (6.1)
  • Schizophrenia (Adolescents) – sedation, weight increased, headache, increased appetite, dizziness, abdominal pain, pain in extremity, fatigue, dry mouth (6.3)
  • Manic or Mixed Episodes, Bipolar I Disorder (Adults) – asthenia, dry mouth, constipation, increased appetite, somnolence, dizziness, tremor (6.1)
  • Manic or Mixed Episodes, Bipolar I Disorder (Adolescents) – sedation, weight increased, increased appetite, headache, fatigue, dizziness, dry mouth, abdominal pain, pain in extremity (6.3)

Combination of ZYPREXA and Lithium or Valproate:

  • Manic or Mixed Episodes, Bipolar I Disorder (Adults) – dry mouth, weight gain, increased appetite, dizziness, back pain, constipation, speech disorder, increased salivation, amnesia, paresthesia (6.1)

ZYPREXA and Fluoxetine in Combination: Also refer to the Adverse Reactions section of the package insert for Symbyax. (6)

ZYPREXA IntraMuscular for Injection:

  • Agitation with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Mania (Adults) – somnolence (6.1)
Precautions
  • Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis: Increased risk of death and increased incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack). (5.1)
  • Suicide: The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in schizophrenia and in bipolar I disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy; when using in combination with fluoxetine, also refer to the Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions sections of the package insert for Symbyax. (5.2)
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: Manage with immediate discontinuation and close monitoring. (5.3)
  • Metabolic Changes: Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. (5.4)
    • Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus: In some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients taking olanzapine. Patients taking olanzapine should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia and undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment. (5.4)
    • Dyslipidemia: Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed. Appropriate clinical monitoring is recommended, including fasting blood lipid testing at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment. (5.4)
    • Weight Gain: Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight. (5.4)
  • Tardive Dyskinesia: Discontinue if clinically appropriate. (5.5)
  • Orthostatic Hypotension: Orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, bradycardia and, in some patients, syncope, may occur especially during initial dose titration. Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and those conditions that could affect hemodynamic responses. (5.6)
  • Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis: Has been reported with antipsychotics, including ZYPREXA. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low white blood cell count (WBC) or drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of ZYPREXA should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors. (5.7)
  • Seizures: Use cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold. (5.9)
  • Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment: Has potential to impair judgment, thinking, and motor skills. Use caution when operating machinery. (5.10)
  • Hyperprolactinemia: May elevate prolactin levels. (5.13)
  • Use in Combination with Fluoxetine, Lithium or Valproate: Also refer to the package inserts for Symbyax, lithium, or valproate. (5.14)
  • Laboratory Tests: Monitor fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment. (5.15)
Interactions
  • Diazepam: May potentiate orthostatic hypotension. (7.1, 7.2)
  • Alcohol: May potentiate orthostatic hypotension. (7.1)
  • Carbamazepine: Increased clearance of olanzapine. (7.1)
  • Fluvoxamine: May increase olanzapine levels. (7.1)
  • ZYPREXA and Fluoxetine in Combination: Also refer to the Drug Interactions section of the package insert for Symbyax. (7.1)
  • CNS Acting Drugs: Caution should be used when taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs and alcohol. (7.2)
  • Antihypertensive Agents: Enhanced antihypertensive effect. (7.2)
  • Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists: May antagonize levodopa/dopamine agonists. (7.2)
  • Lorazepam (IM): Increased somnolence with IM olanzapine. (7.2)
  • Other Concomitant Drug Therapy: When using olanzapine in combination with lithium or valproate, refer to the Drug Interactions sections of the package insert for those products. (7.2)
Overdose

Human Experience
In premarketing trials involving more than 3100 patients and/or normal subjects, accidental or intentional acute overdosage of olanzapine was identified in 67 patients. In the patient taking the largest identified amount, 300 mg, the only symptoms reported were drowsiness and slurred speech. In the limited number of patients who were evaluated in hospitals, including the patient taking 300 mg, there were no observations indicating an adverse change in laboratory analytes or ECG. Vital signs were usually within normal limits following overdoses.

In postmarketing reports of overdose with olanzapine alone, symptoms have been reported in the majority of cases. In symptomatic patients, symptoms with ≥10% incidence included agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, tachycardia, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma. Among less commonly reported symptoms were the following potentially medically serious reactions: aspiration, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiac arrhythmias (such as supraventricular tachycardia and 1 patient experiencing sinus pause with spontaneous resumption of normal rhythm), delirium, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression/arrest, convulsion, hypertension, and hypotension. Eli Lilly and Company has received reports of fatality in association with overdose of olanzapine alone. In 1 case of death, the amount of acutely ingested olanzapine was reported to be possibly as low as 450 mg of oral olanzapine; however, in another case, a patient was reported to survive an acute olanzapine ingestion of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Management of Overdose
For current information on the management of ZYPREXA (olanzapine) overdose, contact a certified poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation, which may include intubation. Gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. The administration of activated charcoal (1 g) reduced the Cmax and AUC of oral olanzapine by about 60%. As peak olanzapine levels are not typically obtained until about 6 hours after dosing, charcoal may be a useful treatment for olanzapine overdose.

The possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias.

There is no specific antidote to olanzapine. Therefore, appropriate supportive measures should be initiated. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents. (Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetics with beta-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of olanzapine-induced alpha blockade.) Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers. For specific information about overdosage with lithium or valproate, refer to the Overdosage section of the package inserts for these products.

For specific information about overdosage with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, refer to the Overdosage section of the Symbyax package insert.

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