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Clinical White Papers

Clinical White Papers

The GeneSight® Psychotropic Combinatorial Algorithm

The Pharmacogenomic (PGx) Algorithm: A common discussion among experts revolves around pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing algorithms. Many commercial tests are proprietary, and therefore, their algorithms are considered a “black box”.1 This white paper…
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GET TO KNOW A GENE: HLA-B*1502 and HLA-A*3101

Summary: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex plays an important role in immune regulation. HLA-B*1502 has demonstrated the ability to predict an increased risk of severe skin reactions, such as Stevens-Johnsons…
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GET TO KNOW A GENE: CACNA1C

Summary: Minimal evidence exists linking CACNA1C as a pharmacogenomic marker, and CACNA1C shows little clinical utility as a disease marker. While there is an association between CACNA1C and bipolar disorder…
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How Do I Use the Gene-Drug Interaction Chart?

What is the gene-drug interaction chart? Healthcare providers and patients often inquire about how they can determine which genes affect response to each medication. The gene-drug interaction chart provides supplementary…
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Get to know a gene: ANK3

Summary: ANK3 has not been shown to inform on patient medication response and therefore is not a pharmacogenomic marker. As a disease marker, it lacks clinical utility. There is an…
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Get to know a gene: UGT2B15

What is UGT2B15? The UGT2B15 gene encodes an enzyme responsible for glucuronidation, a phase II metabolic reaction that transforms small lipophilic molecules into water-soluble excretable metabolites. The UGT2B15 enzyme is…
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Get to know a gene: UGT1A4

What is UGT1A4? The UGT1A4 gene encodes an enzyme of the glucuronidation pathway, a phase II metabolism process that transforms small lipophilic molecules into water-soluble excretable metabolites. The UGT1A4 enzyme…
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Get to know a gene: HTR2A

What is HTR2A? The 5-HT2A receptor, encoded by the HTR2A gene, is responsible for post-synaptic serotonin signaling and is a target for many antipsychotics and antidepressants.1 Two single nucleotide polymorphisms…
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